X

Whenever an electronic device stops working properly, there is often a huge chance that a component on the printed circuit board (PCB) has come loose or is damaged. This means that the device owner would either have to get the device’s PCB fixed or just throw it in the trash and buy a new one. Most of the time, if the damage is on the PCB, it would be more cost-effective to buy a completely new device. But what exactly is a printed circuit board or PCB?

PCB designIn layman’s terms, the PCB is the heart that keeps a device running smoothly. It is responsible for receiving signal and power from external sources. It is also responsible for distributing this throughout all the components of the device. It is referred to as a printed circuit board because of the way that a circuit made up of different components is mounted on a flat board that has a schematic diagram for interconnections printed on it. This diagram is often created even before the first stage of the PCB fabrication process begins.

The first stage of PCB fabrication involves etching the schematic diagram on the circuit board. Note that the board is often made up of sturdy fiberglass with a thin layer of copper sheet attached to it. The schematic diagram is important because it indicates the places on the board where holes have to be pre-drilled. These holes would serve a purpose later on when it when it is time to mount the components.

There are two different ways of mounting the components in PCB fabrication:

1.Surface Mount – this method involves mounting the components onto the surface on one side of the circuit board using a soldering iron. Because only one side of board is used for mounting and sticking the components, this leaves the other side free for the manufacturer to do with as he pleases.

2.Through-hole – this is where the pre-drilled holes come in handy. Although some manufacturers prefer to leave the holes untouched, others use it to secure the components. This is done by pushing the tip of the component onto a hole and then gluing that tip on the other side.

This requires thin copper or lead wires to be attached to the tips of each component so that the wires can be pushed through the holes and glued on the other side. Through-hole technology is the traditional way of mounting PCB components and has been in use from the time that PCB fabrication began.

After mounting the components, the circuit board would then be cleaned free of any solder paste residue. Manufacturers often use solvent for this purpose, though is also a good alternative.

It has to be noted that PCB fabrication involves a lot of cross-checking in order to ensure that everything is in order. This cross-checking includes both visual checks to verify if there is any visible flaw and electronic checks to ensure that every component is receiving the right amount of power. Some manufacturers put their finished products to the test u der extreme conditions, such as under strong heat or with high levels of vibration.

This would help ensure that the components wouldn’t come loose or get damaged at the first sign of trouble. This step is necessary when creating the PCBs of devices used in extreme sports or under extreme environmental conditions.

Techno geeks who want to experiment on PCBs can actually assemble their own PCBs right in the comfort of their homes. All they have to do is to purchase a handy PCB DIY kit and follow the instructions on the label. They wouldn’t even have to worry about having to create and etch the diagram since most kits already have printed diagrams on the circuit board.

Posted in Electronics | Comments Off on The Stages of PCB Fabrication | Tags: , , , ,
X

Are you tired of trying different kinds of diets that don’t really work for you? Well, search no more and never lose your hope because the HCG diet might be all that you are looking for! The HCG diet is a very effective weight management plan that is also extremely easy to follow. This diet is a combination of orally taking HCG diet drops and following a specifically designed “500-calorie a day” diet. This was founded by a world-renowned endocrinologist named Dr. Albert Simeons in the 1960’s in conjunction with his study on obesity. From this research and successful clinic trials, he wrote the fundamentals of the HCG diet in his popular book, “Inches and Pounds”.

Our HCG diet has been formulated in direct relation to the original study of Dr Simeon in order to ensure the same stunning and amazing results for our beloved clients.

HOW TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT HCG DIET KIT FOR YOU?

The program has three main phases and we will give you a detailed explanation of these phases below so that you can get a better idea of the diet process, as well as to help you choose the right kit for you.

First of all, the HCG diet drops are to be taken three (3) times a day (breakfast, lunch and dinner). It is very necessary to avoid eating or drinking anything fifteen minutes before you take the drops. Don’t worry about not getting the precise amount of the drops for our HCG diet kit comes with a free oral syringe that will ensure exact and perfect delivery. This will also prevent you from using too much HCG that might cause you to run out of it before the required days to lose weight, or from not taking enough to actually take effect on your body. Now here are the main phases of the HCG diet:

• Phase 1 – The Fat-Loading phase

In this phase, you’re going to have to eat as much fatty food as possible. It basically means that you need to eat a lot of all those high-calorie food that you normally try to avoid. This may sound insane for someone who is trying to lose weight but this fat-loading phase is indeed very important. The reason behind this is that you need to start out by building up the fat reserves in your body first so that your body can use these stored fats before the HCG “kicks in” and starts working its way on your abnormal fats. At the same time that you are fat-loading, you are going to start taking the HCG drops, too. This fat-loading phase usually takes 2-3 days to complete and immediately after taking the drops, you will notice that you are feeling full without eating as much as you thought you could. This is because the HCG drops will help you suppress your appetite naturally, thus decreasing your usual food cravings.

• Phase 2 – Diet Phase

At this stage, you will now have to decrease your diet to just 500 calories per day. This may seem like a small amount but don’t worry because you won’t starve yourself by doing this for your body will still have the energy that it needs by consuming the stored fats which the HCG diet drops are burning. You will still have a lot of healthy food options but for best results, we advise that you follow the no starches/no sugar rule for the whole phase. Avoid brown sugar, powdered sugar, molasses, corn syrup, honey, fruit juice concentrate, maple syrup, barley syrup, lactose, glucose and brown rice syrup. Also avoid bread, cereals, crackers, cookies, potatoes, rice, pastas and pastries. Don’t worry, because the HCG drops gradually decrease your appetite; you will be surprised on how easy this phase will be for you. You will continue taking HCG drops every day and also don’t forget to weigh yourself daily after waking up. You will start to see the results in just 1-2 weeks.

• Phase 3 – Maintenance Phase

The most important key of this phase is to maintain the weight you are currently at. Take note that you must never skip this phase because you need to maintain your current diet practice in order to shield yourself from those extra pounds that you’ve shed with the help of HCG diet drops. To do this, you still have to follow the no starches/no sugar rule for 3 weeks. This phase is not for losing weight anymore but rather to remain within 2 pounds of your last weight after completing phase 2. Remember to always weigh yourself every day to see if you are indeed maintaining your healthier weight. But don’t worry, because of the HCG diet, your cravings for food should be normalized now and you should only eat when you are hungry without having to eat so much food anymore before you feel satisfied. You might also notice that unlike before, you no longer crave for the bad food that you used to be obsessed to.

Our HCG diet will help you lose weight naturally, as well as teach you how to manage your food intake not only during the diet phase itself but also afterwards, in order to help you maintain a healthier body for life.

1hcgdrops is your number one supplier for all real HCG Drops and diet liquid drops.

Posted in Weight Loss | Comments Off on CHOOSING THE RIGHT HCG DIET KIT AND THE PHASES OF HCG DIET PLAN | Tags: , ,

Types of Storage Containers

April 4th, 2015

Are you currently remodeling your living room? Do you need to de-clutter your quarters in anticipation of guests? Or, are you simply sick and tired of seeing your house in a perpetual state of mess? If you answer yes to any of these questions, you may want to consider getting a storage container to keep your unwanted stuff out of the way.

Storage containers have become an essential part of many homes and offices, particularly to home or business owners who do not wish to add an additional room or two to their building’s structure. Because a storage container can hold almost anything, more and more people are finding it easy to rent or purchase one and park it right beside their house or establishment. You can find it on www.moveablecontainer.com.

Before you decide to get a container for your use, you should be able to identify first the types of storage spaces available in the market. Below are the most common ones:

Storage-Container1. Portable container. A storage company offering portable containers can deliver the said containers right at the client’s doorstep. These storage spaces can be used to keep furniture and other items during a house renovation. They are also handy to have when you need to temporarily make your house more presentable for guests or potential house buyers. Offices can use portable storage spaces to keep their merchandise and other business equipment.

2. Moving container. If you plan to move to another location, you can get a portable container to store your stuff. The movers can then pick up the container and bring it to your new home. Most storage companies allow house owners to pack their stuff by themselves. This gives the owners more freedom on how they will arrange their furniture, and gives them assurance that fragile items do not get buried under boxes of heavier stuff. Moving containers come in different sizes, and can hold items found from anywhere between one to seven rooms.

3. Cubicle. Some businesses do not have enough room in their head office to accommodate all their employees’ stuff. A cubicle storage space can solve this dilemma. By having an extra container that will keep the employees’ old paperwork and deliverables, extra space is freed up in the office. This gives employees’ more room to move, which may contribute to a more efficient performance.

4. Mobile Offices. Because of their nature, some businesses move from one place to another on a regular basis. To avoid having to look for a new office space every time they are required to relocate, business owners can opt to set up a mobile office using a big storage container. This can house all of the employees required to join the transfer. This way, they do not have to worry about moving all the office equipment, furniture, and items one by one every time they relocate.

5. IBC. IBC stands for Intermediate Bulk Container. It is usually used by businesses that need to transfer raw materials and perishable goods.

6. Corrugated boxes. These are boxes used to store small, individual items. They usually hold materials that are too small to be placed directly in a big storage container. Corrugated boxes come in various sizes, ranging from very small to large. Although designed to hold light- to medium-weight items, these boxes can also store bigger materials, as long as they are properly supported.

There are other containers available in the market. These include crates, steel drums, and other wooden boxes. Identifying the right one will save you the trouble of trying to fit all your things in a container that is not suited for them.

Military Coins Challenge

February 13th, 2015

In pop culture, vintage is the new fad. It gives a new meaning to the phrase “old is the new in”. Clothes and items from past eras are what people are looking for nowadays. Among the most sought-after collector’s items are military coins. Some date back from as early as World War 1. These are hard to get because there are only a number of these coins per design, making them rare and expensive. These coins have great values in them.

In the days of their official use, however, military coins did not have monetary value; rather they had tremendous importance all the while. They were originally used for identification purposes. Squadrons had coins printed out in similar designs in order to distinguish members from enemies during the First World War. Legend has it that a kidnapped soldier escaped from enemy lines and was able to return to safe land. However, members of the same alliance were not able to distinguish him and were ready to execute the refugee. Fortunately, he presented his bronze medallion and he was welcomed.

This story gave rise to a simple game composed of the military coins. All members of the platoon were encouraged to bring their medallions at all times. The challenge, as they call it, is the most common and easiest way to ensure if a member of the unit is carrying the official medallion of the squadron. The tradition of the challenge aims to strengthen morale in a given unit. The rules of the game are not formalized and may vary from unit to unit. The game can only be played by members who are officially granted a coin by their unit’s commander. New recruits should not engage in the challenge because it may lead to controversies. New volunteers should wait until a coin has been given to them.

The challenge of military coins can be started at any time of any day. It begins when a challenger draws his coin. He should be able to attract the attention of the other members of the unit. The challenger does this by slapping the coin on a surface for all members to see. In noisy places, the challenger can rap the coin against the table until all members are able to see that a challenge has been called. All other members present should produce their own coin from their organization. They should place it where it is easy for the challenger to see. If a member fails to show his coin, his penalty is to buy a round of drinks for the challenger and everyone who participated in the challenge. At the same time, if every single member of the challenge is able to produce a coin, the challenger is responsible for buying a round drinks for the group.

Other organizations have modified the rules a little bit. While most coins are kept in pockets or hanging from their necks, there are some members who have extra medallions. Some rules have “a step and a reach” imperative where a challenged person can ‘borrow’ an extra coin from another individual. If someone manages to steal a challenge coin, everyone in the game is required to buy a drink for that person. Another rule-bender is when everyone awards the holder of the highest-ranking coin in the game to a drink each. Other versions of the game include a traditional handshake when the coin is passed during the handshake. There is a time limit for the challenged to respond to the challenger.

As people can see, military coins aren’t limited to serving as proof of identification. In times of war, it is welcomed for soldiers to enjoy something every once in a while.

The Kinds of Golf Clubs

February 11th, 2015

Discount golf clubs come in wide variations just like golf clubs that are sold in non-discounted price. Just because it says “discount” doesn’t mean it ranks low in quality and performance. Here are the basic kinds of golf clubs to start with:

Putters

A putter is a kind of golf club that has two striking faces with a loft angled at no more than 10 degrees. A loft is basically the angle at the golf club made from the slant of the club’s vertical plane. Every golf club has a loft designed to lift the ball out of the ground. Putters are designed for low speed and short range hits and its materials and design are meant to deliver a smooth and bounce free stroke. They are used on the green (closely trimmed grass) to roll the golf ball directly into the hole.

RockbottomgolfThe club head of a putter may be made from one material or it may have an insert. Putters have grid lines on the club head as a guide. Its shaft is the only type of golf club shaft allowed to have a bend. The putter’s shaft may be built at the center of the club to be aligned with the ball upon impact. Because putters are so crucial, it is available in every store offering quality discount golf clubs.

Wedge

Wedges are golf clubs made from iron. They have the shortest shafts and the heaviest club heads. The primary purpose of wedges is to get the ball out of the hazard and into the green. The lofts for wedges are angled high. Depending on the surface it would work on, wedges are classified into lob wedge, approach or gap wedge, sand wedge and lob wedge. Discount golf clubs also offer these kinds of wedges.

Lob wedges have a loft around 60 degrees. They deliver a shot at a high angle. Sand wedges are designed to help the player roll and lift the ball from the sand. It has a loft of about 56 degrees and offers a 10-degree bounce. Typically golf clubs with higher lofts have shorter shafts but some sand wedges are built with longer shafts. The club head is heavy to help the wedge bury itself on the surface to lift the ball.

Gap wedges are the newest addition to golf clubs. Its purpose is to fill the gap of distance and loft between pitching and sand wedge. It has a loft around 52 degrees and offers a slight bounce. Some golfers find gap wedges unnecessary as its performance can be replaced by hitting ¾ pitching wedge shots. The pitching wedge has a loft around 48 degrees with very little bounce. It is suited for short distance shots and delivers high-accuracy shots. Pitching wedges are used on fairways and roughs.

Irons

Irons are specifically made if the golfer is less than 200 yards from the green. Irons are classified as numbers 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 irons. The closer the golfer is to the green, the higher the number of the iron should be. Low numbered irons are harder to hit. The club heads and shafts of irons are smaller and shorter than the woods. Irons are available in muscle-back and cavity-back designs.

Hybrids

Hybrids are made from wood and metal. It is touted as a combination of fairway wood and long iron clubs. Hybrid clubs are the most liked club that some golfers even decided to replace 3 and 4 irons with them. The club head is relatively dense. Hybrids are popular and are also available as discount golf clubs.

Lanyards are one good key to giving a distinct identity to your USB flash drives, icards, mp3 players and ipods. It is hard to imagine the time when you have lost your valuable items in the past just because either they were not hooked onto a good thread or did not have a thread to hold back. With custom lanyards, you can officially put a final end to all your losing woes. In the paragraphs below, we are going to give you more information on this product and tell you why you may want to get one.

Shop Around and Save Money

There are various companies out there that are offering custom lanyards at a discount price. Before you purchase the product from the first company you come across, you should first take some time to do research – it goes without saying that shopping around always pays off. The lanyards are available in a variety of different colors, as well textures, so you will be able to choose based on your taste.

Custom Lanyards Are Strong and Can Hold Most Electronic Products and Cards

These custom lanyards are really strong enough to hold any electronic product or I cards. They don’t just focus on colors or designs in lanyards. Most lanyards, depending on the company, are all about quality as well. At the end of the day, all most are looking for is a long term relationship with our customers.

The Material That is Used

custom lanyardsThe material that is normally used in the thread is a good quality of polyester, satin and nylon which is really strong and can bear a considerable amount of weight. Most companies give a good preference to the strength. Custom lanyards do not leave behind any rashes or any other skin problem because you are wearing it for a long time. Also, companies like to give their customer something which is more comfortable to wear so that the day you are wearing round necks, you still feel comfortable to wear the lanyards.

Full Team of Designers

Custom companies have a full team of designers that are full of empathy and imagination. The moment you tell them your industry, they are able to tell what kind of custom lanyards you would be looking for. Therefore, you do not have to go on explaining your need in far too much of a detail, saving your time. Also, the best part is that owing to their expertise in the field, they will be able to recommend you whether you should go for embroidered custom lanyards, printed lanyard or a stitched lanyard.

There Are Many Benefits to Ordering Lanyards

If you order the lanyards, you will receive various other benefits. Normally, custom lanyards are priced at a very economical price. Therefore, they will never hurt your pocket, which is good news if you plan on ordering this product.

Different techniques, processes and colors can be used in order to customize your lanyard, so your requirements in this product can easily be fulfilled. Regardless of who you are, where you are from or where you work, you can always use a lanyard – they are perfect for holding keys, ID cards, iPhones and many other things – so what are you waiting for? Go ahead and order your lanyard today!